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Международная конференция "Философские, социально-экономические и правовые основания современного государства"

10-11 июня состоится Международная конференция Философские, социально-экономические и правовые основания современного государства . Организатор: кафедра философии

«Российский мониторинг экономического положения и здоровья населения»

31 мая 2010 года в ГУ ВШЭ (Москва) состоится конференция, посвященная 15-летию международного исследовательского проекта Российский мониторинг экономического положения

«Национальный проект - Россия»

1 июля 2010 года в Москве, в Центре международной торговли по инициативе Ассамблеи делового сообщества состоится Всероссийская акция Национальный проект - Россия


Труд. Энциклопедия социологии


Автор: Г.Н. Соколова
Дата первой публикации: n/a
Первоисточник: Энциклопедия социологии

Труд - целесообразная, сознательная деятельность, в процессе которой человек при помощи орудий труда осваивает, изменяет и приспосабливает к своим целям предметы природы. Труд как обмен веществ между человеком и природой означает, что человек использует механические, физические и химические свойства предметов и явлений природы и заставляет их взаимно влиять друг на друга для достижения заранее намеченной цели. При этом, трудовой деятельности присущи, как отмечал Маркс, опосредствующая, регулирующая и контролирующая функции, изменяющиеся по мере развития науки и техники.

Используя ручную, ремесленную технику и эмпирические познания, человек устанавливал новые взаимосвязи между предметами природы и ее процессами и таким образом осуществлял обмен веществ с природой (опосредствующая функция). Машинная техника и естественно-научные познания позволили человеку оказывать влияние на взаимодействие между различными природными явлениями и предметами (регулирующая функция). И наконец, современная научно-техническая революция дает ему возможность овладевать, контролировать внутренний механизм явлений и предметов природы (контролирующая функция). В этом случае, содержание труда выявляется в конкретной определенности трудовых функций, обусловленных техникой, технологией, организацией производства и мастерством работника. Оно отражает способ соединения производителя со средствами производства, определяемый уровнем развития производительных сил, центральное звено которых — человек. Будучи естественным условием жизни, труд всегда осуществлялся в рамках исторически определенных общественных отношений, накладывающих отпечаток на его характер.

Характер труда отражает способ соединения производителя со средствами производства, обусловленный господствующими в данном обществе отношениями собственности. Например, в рабовладельческом обществе раб и средства труда соединились как собственность рабовладельца, и это порождало личную зависимость трудящегося от того, кто присваивал результаты его труда. В обществе, основанном на частной собственности на средства производства, работник может соединяться с ними, продавая свою рабочую силу. Поэтому характер труда в таком обществе отражает условия найма рабочей силы. Характер труда отражает его социально-экономическую природу в обществе, находящемся на определенной ступени развития. С этой точки зрения как качественно различные могут рассматриваться такие исторические формы труда, как рабовладельческий, феодальный и различные формы наемного труда.

Характер труда обусловливает цели общественного производства в широком диапазоне (от простого увеличения прибыли до возведения во главу угла роста материального и духовного благосостояния трудящихся), а в сфере распределения — продукции, в которых общественное богатство распределяется между различными стратами в обществе. Что же касается количества этого богатства, то оно зависит от уровня развития производительных сил.

Содержание и характер труда представляют собой единство двух сторон одного и того же явления, сущность и форму общественного труда и определяются как парные категории. Общее, что их объединяет, — это способ связи производителя со средствами производства; различие же их состоит в том, что содержание труда развивается в зависимости от уровня развития производительных сил, а характер труда — от состояния экономических отношений в обществе. Для феодального общества был характерен ремесленный труд, основанный на применении ручного инструмента и эмпирической технологии. Квалификация ремесленника непосредственно зависела от сложности предмета труда, а следовательно, и функций по его обработке. Кто желал быть мастером, вынужден был овладеть ремеслом во всей его полноте. Особенности труда ремесленника обусловливали и специфику его подготовки, которая фактически исключала теоретическое обучение и приобрела характер практического ученичества, растянутого на долгие годы. Универсальность трудовых функций влекла за собой высокую ремесленную квалификацию. Однако эта квалификация сочеталась с низким культурным уровнем работника, обусловленным низким уровнем тогдашних знаний о мире, а также тем, что общее образование для большинства ремесленников было непродолжительными или вовсе отсутствовало. Успех дела в ремесленном производстве зависел прежде всего от таланта ремесленника, его личностных качеств и способностей. Приобретая высокую профессиональную культуру путем многолетней выучки, являясь производителем и предпринимателем, производящим и продающим свой товар, ремесленник выступал субъектом, творцом культуры, но на той низкой культурной и технической основе, которая обусловила чрезвычайно медленное организационно-техническое развитие.

Переход к машинному производству вызвал развитие капиталистических отношений, связанных с использованием наемного труда, в содержании труда рабочего произошли глубокие качественные изменения, в которых реализуется важнейшая закономерность технического прогресса, — а именно, передача опосредствующих функций от человека к машине. Машинное производство знаменует собой начало превращения науки в непосредственную производительную силу и приобщение рабочего к научно-техническим достижениям, необходимым для управления машиной. Эмпирический опыт в труде продолжает играть значительную роль, но ограничиться им рабочий уже не может. От него требуется известный уровень общего и специального образования, определенный объем профессиональных знаний, а наряду с этим, владение достаточно сложными навыками физического труда.

В современных условиях, когда значительно больше прибыли «выжимается» из квалификации, нежели из физической силы, целесообразно формировать универсальную рабочую силы с высоким уровнем образования. Технический уклад отечественного производства в нынешних условиях неоднороден. В технике, технологии и организации труда сосуществуют и переплетаются, во-первых, остатки прошлого — значительные объемы ручного неквалифицированного и тяжелого физического труда; во-вторых, основа нынешнего производства — комплексно-механизированный труд; в-третьих, генеральная цель научно-технического прогресса — автоматизированный труд. Это обусловливает разнотипность труда совокупного работника с точки зрения его содержания и вместе с тем сохранение в современном производстве тех типов труда, которые исторически сменили друг друга. Если в основе смены типов труда лежит технический прогресс, то главная причина их сосуществования — его неравномерность, переплетение в техническом базисе производства техники прошлого, настоящего и элементов техники будущего. Неравномерность развития техники, технологии и организации производства в разных отраслях, на различных промышленных предприятиях обусловливает сохранение массовости неквалифицированного ручного и тяжелого физического труда, не способствующего социальному и профессиональному развитию трудящихся.

Общественная ситуация такова, что на нынешнем этапе отечественное производство пока что нуждается в 70% носителей преимущественно физического и в 30% преимущественно умственного труда. Деление на эти роды труда при современном уровне развития производительных сил пока что имеет место, и различие по роли в общественной организации труда работников, занятых указанными родами труда, выступает в нынешних условиях как различие социальное и культурное. Социальность различий проявляется в том, что физический и умственный, квалифицированный и неквалифицированный труд диктуют различные требования к уровню общего и специального образования и профессиональной подготовки работников, их профессиональной культуре, и создают различные возможности для реализации профессиональных и личностных способностей в процессе трудовой деятельности.

Основными законами, управляющими развитием общественного труда, являются законы разделения и перемены труда и усиливающий их взаимодействие закон конкуренции. Содержание закона разделения труда состоит в том, что общественные формации порождают свои способы разделения труда и каждая новая формация добавляет присущие лишь ей новые виды разделения труда, вытекающие из уровня развития производительных сил и природы экономических отношений. Прокладывая себе дорогу стихийно и в то же время как объективная необходимость, данный закон определяет динамику разделения труда на его различные виды (физический и умственный, промышленный и сельскохозяйственный, квалифицированный и неквалифицированный, исполнительский и управленческий и др.) и одновременно — основу деления общества на социальные группы занятых названными видами труда и отношения между группами в зависимости от их социального статуса и престижа труда. С законом разделения труда связан закон перемены труда, возникший в процессе замены мануфактурного производства машинным, когда возникла необходимость формирования гибкой, универсальной, многосторонне развитой рабочей силы, способной к перманентному обучению и переобучению в ходе изменения производственных процессов. Непреложное требование закона перемены труда — ускоряющаяся подвижность трудовых функций. Объективным законом, влияющим через отношения субъектов собственности на взаимодействие законов разделения и перемены труда, выступает закон конкуренции, принуждающий капитал, по выражению Маркса, напрягать производительные силы труда, потому что он напрягал их раньше. Ареной закона конкуренции становится все общественное производство в процессе его перманентной революционизации.

 

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